File Name: world encyclopedia of political systems and parties .zip
One sees a wide range of political regimes from a democratic republic with universal male suffrage France to parliamentary, constitutional, or even oligarchical monarchies in the countries that entered the First World War. This article explores the question of whether these different political regimes dealt with the challenges of preserving national unity and social cohesion during the war in different ways, or put more precisely: did a democratic political system make a difference? In some areas — for instance the problem of parliamentary control of government — the political regime did not make a great difference.
Spanish is the second most commonly spoken language. The figure given is from the U. Central Intelligence Agency 's World Factbook. Other sources give smaller figures. All authoritative calculations of the country's size include only the 50 states and the District of Columbia, not the territories.
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Political culture and socialization. Political culture is the set of attitudes, beliefs, and sentiments which give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system. It encompasses both the political ideals and the operating norms of a polity. Political culture is thus the manifestation in aggregate form of the psychological and subjective dimensions of politics. A political culture is the product of both the collective history of a political system and the life histories of the members of that system, and thus it is rooted equally in public events and private experiences.
A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals. Political parties are a major part of the politics of almost every country, after modern party organizations developed and spread around the world over the last few centuries. Some countries have only one political party while others have dozens, but it is extremely rare for a country to have no political parties. Parties are important in the politics of autocracies as well as democracies , though usually democracies have more political parties than autocracies. Autocracies often have a single party that governs the country, and some political scientists consider competition between two or more parties to be an essential part of democracy. Parties can develop from existing divisions in society, like the divisions between lower and upper classes, and they streamline the process of making political decisions by encouraging their members to cooperate.
World encyclopedia of political systems and parties—4th ed. / edited by. Neil Schlager and Jayne Weisblatt ; consulting editor, Orlando J. Pérez.
Renewed and growing interest in the topic of civil society has generated a wealth of new information and knowledge on the subject, but until now, there was no comprehensive reference work to organize and consolidate this knowledge. The International Encyclopedia of Civil Society will fill this gap, creating a framework for cross-disciplinary communication by providing succinct summaries of concepts and theories, definitions of terms, biographical entries, and organizational profiles. It will also serve as a guide to sources of information, and an overview of the contours of civil society, social capital, philanthropy and nonprofits in different parts of the world, and across cultures and historical periods. The key purpose of the encyclopedia is to provide a common set of understandings and a terminological and analytical starting point for the future development in the growing field of civil society studies worldwide.
With entries from leading international scholars from around the world, this eight-volume encyclopedia offers the widest possible coverage of key areas both regionally and globally. The International Encyclopedia of Political Science provides a definitive, comprehensive picture of all aspects of political life, recognizing the theoretical and cultural pluralism of our approaches and including findings from the far corners of the world. The eight volumes cover every field of politics, from political theory and methodology to political sociology, comparative politics, public policies, and international relations. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order, and a list of entries by subject area appears in the front of each volume for ease of use.
- Периодическая таблица. Химические элементы. Видел ли кто-нибудь из вас фильм Толстый и тонкий о Манхэттенском проекте.
Я не такой дурак, как вы думаете, - бросил Хейл. - Я воспользуюсь вашим лифтом. Сьюзан пойдет со. А вы останетесь.
Теперь предстояло принять решение. Бросить все и ехать в аэропорт. Вопрос национальной безопасности.
Я не убивал его! - Крик Хейла перекрыл вой сирены. - Его столкнул вниз Стратмор. Я все это видел, потому что прятался в подсобке. Чатрукьян хотел вызвать службу безопасности, что разрушило бы все планы Стратмора. Ну и ловок, подумала Сьюзан.
Сьюзан отвернулась от экрана ВР к боковому монитору. На нем бесконечно повторялась видеозапись убийства Танкадо. И всякий раз Танкадо хватался за грудь, падал и с выражение ужаса на лице навязывал кольцо ничего не подозревающим туристам. В этом нет никакого смысла, - размышляла .
В обеих бомбах уран? - Джабба оживился и прильнул к экрану. - Это обнадеживает: яблоки и яблоки. - Чем отличаются изотопы? - спросил Фонтейн.