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- Sport and Society: A Student Introduction
- The Business and Culture of Sports: Society, Politics, Economy, Environment, 1st Edition
- Sports and Society
Sport and Society: A Student Introduction
Sociology of sport , alternately referred to as sports sociology, is a sub-discipline of sociology which focuses on sports as social phenomena. It is an area of study concerned with the relationship between sociology and sports , and also various socio-cultural structures, patterns, and organizations or groups involved with sport.
This area of study discusses the positive impact sports have on individual people and society as a whole economically, financially, and socially. Sociology of sport attempts to view the actions and behavior of sports teams and their players through the eyes of a sociologist.
Sport is regulated by regulations and rules of behavior, spatial and time constraints, and has governing bodies. It is oriented towards a goal, which makes known both the winner and the loser. It is competitive , and ludic. All sports are culturally situated, intertwined with the value systems and power relations within the host society. The emergence of the sociology of sport though not the name itself dates from the end of the 19th century, when first social psychological experiments dealing with group effects of competition and pace-making took place.
Besides cultural anthropology and its interest in games in the human culture, one of the first efforts to think about sports in a more general way was Johan Huizinga's Homo Ludens or Thorstein Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class. Homo Ludens discusses the importance of the element of play in culture and society. Huizinga suggests that play , specifically sport, is primary to and a necessary condition of the generation of culture. These written works contributed to the rise of the study of sociology of sport.
In , sports sociology gained significant attention as an organized, legitimate field of study. The North American Society for the Sociology of Sport was formed in with the objective of studying the field.
Its research outlet, the Sociology of Sport Journal, was formed in Sport has always been characterized by racial social relationships. The first scientific look at race came at the end of the 19th century, when count Arthur de Gobineau attempted to prove the physical and intellectual superiority of the white race.
Darwin's theory of natural selection was used in service of racism as well. After the athletic ability of black sportspeople was proven, the theory shifted toward physical ability at the expense of intellect. Several racist theories were advanced.
Black people were athletically able because animals ate all the slow ones. The mandigo theory assumed that the most physically potent black men were bred with the most physically potent black women. The psychological theory claimed that black athletes didn't have the intellectual capacity to assume leadership positions in sports. The " dumb jock theory " saw black people enrolling on sport scholarships as they were unable to find success in academia.
Lastly, the genetic theory suggested that black sportspeople had more of certain muscle fibers. Young African-Americans see sports as means of upward social mobility, which is denied to them through conventional employment. For example, golf is inaccessible to African-Americans less because of race, and more because of the high economic and social capital needed.
Race is often connected to gender, with women having less opportunities to access and succeed in sports. Once a woman does succeed, her race is downplayed and her sexuality is accentuated.
In team sports, white players are often placed in central positions which demand intelligence , decisiveness, leadership , calmness and reliability. Black players are in turn place in positions that demand athletic ability, physical strength , speed and explosiveness. For example, white players in the role of central midfielders and black players as wingers.
Female participation in sports is influenced by patriarchal ideologies surrounding the body, as well as ideas of femininity and sexuality. Physical exertion inevitably leads to development of muscle, which is connected to masculinity , which is in contrast to the idea of women as presented by modern consumer culture.
Women who enter sports early are more likely to challenge these stereotypes. Television networks and corporations focus on showcasing female athlete which are considered as attractive, which trivializes the achievements of these sportswomen.
Women's sports are less covered by news than male sports. During sporting events, the camera focuses on specifically on attractive women. Further, attractive male and female athletes will always be more sought after. The erotic component of sports should be researched, instead of being outright rejected.
Jennifer Hargreaves sees three political strategies for women in sports: . Structural functionalist theories see society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
Bromberger saw similarities between religious ceremonies and football matches. Matches are held in a particular spatial configuration, pitches are sacred and may not be polluted by pitch invaders, and lead to intense emotional states in fans.
As with religious ceremonies, spectators are spatially distributed according to social distribution of power. Football seasons have a fixed calendar.
Group roles on match day are ceremonial, with specially robed people performing intense ritual acts. As a church, football has an organizational network, from local to global levels. Matches have a sequential order that guides the actions of participants, from pre-match to post-match actions. Lastly, football rituals create a sense of communitas. Accounting for the fact that not all actions support the existing societal structure, Robert K.
Merton saw five ways a person could react to the existing structure, which can be applied to sports as well: conformism, innovation, ritualism, withdrawal, and rebellion. Erving Goffman drew on Durkheim's conception of positive rituals, emphasizing the sacred status of an individual's " face ".
Positive compliments, greetings, etc. Birrell furthermore posits sport events are ritual competitions in which athletes show their character through a mix of bravery, good play and integrity. A good showing serves to reinforce the good face of the athlete. Interpretative sociology explores the interrelations of social action to status, subjectivity, meaning, motives, identities and social change. It avoids explaining human groups through general laws and generalizations, preferring what Max Weber called verstehen - understanding and explaining individual motivations.
Sport allows for creation of various social identities within the framework of a single game or match, which may change during it or throughout the course of multiple matches. Weber introduced the notion of rationalization. In modern society, relationship are organized to be as efficient as possible, based on technical knowledge, instead of moral and political principles. This creates bureaucracies that are efficient, impersonal and homogeneous. Karl Marx saw sports as rooted in its economic context, subject to commodification and alienation.
Neo marxism sees sport as an ideological tool of the bourgeoisie , used to deceive the masses, in order to maintain control. As laborers, athletes give up their labour power , and suffer the same fate as the alienated worker. Specialized division of labor force athletes to constantly perform the same movements, instead of playing creatively, experimentally and freely. Marxist theories have been used to research the commodification of sport, for example, how players themselves become goods or promote them,  the hyper-commercialization of sports during the 20th century,  how clubs become like traditional firms, and how sport organizations become brands.
This approach has been criticized for their tendency toward raw economism ,  and supposing that all current social structures function to maintain the existing capitalist order. Neo Marxist analysis of sports often underestimate the aesthetic side of sport as well. Hegemony research describes the relations of power, as well as methods and techniques used by dominant groups to achieve ideological consent, without resorting to physical coercion.
This ideological consent aims to make the exploratory social order seem natural, guaranteeing that the subordinate groups live out their subordination.
A hegemony is always open to contestation, and thus counter-hegemonic movements may emerge. The dominant groups may use sports to steer the use of the subordinate classes in the desired direction,  or towards consumerism.
Resistance is a key concept in cultural studies, which describes how subordinate groups engage in particular cultural practices to resist their domination. Resistance can be overt and deliberate or latent and unconscious, but always counters the norms and conventions of the dominant groups. Body became a subject of research in the 80s, with the work of Michel Foucault. For him, power is exercise in two different ways - through biopower and disciplinary power. Biopower centers on the political control of key biological aspects of the human body and whole populations, such as birth, reproduction, death, etc.
Disciplinary power is exercised by means of the everyday disciplining of bodies, particularly through controlling time and space. Eichberg sees three different types of bodies as highlighting the difference between disciplined and undisciplined bodies in sport: the dialogic body, of different shapes and sizes, which are given to freeing oneself from control, and were he main type in pre-modern festivals and carnivals.
The streamlined, improved body for sports accomplishment and competition. The healthy, straight body, which is shaped through disciplined regimes of fitness. The grotesque body could be seen in pre-modern festivals and carnivals, i.
Segel claimed that the cultural raise of sports reflected the wider turn of modern society toward phsycial expresion, which revived militarism , war and fascism. Prizefighting allows research into the violent body. Prizefighters trasform their bodily capital into prizefighting capital, for the purpose of winning fame, status and wealth.
A frequent response to this is attempting to turn themselves into heroic personalities. All contact sports have violence as part of strategy to a certain extent. Finn see footballers as socializing into a culture of quasi-violence, which accentuates different values than those in regular life. It accepts violence as central to the game. Physical injury of sportspeople can be seen through Beck's theory of a " risk society ".
A risk society is characterized by reflexive modernity, where members of society are well informed, critical and participate in the shaping of social structures. Unlike the routine risk of traditional society , modern societies identify and minimize risks. The lower classes have lower access to risk assessment and avoidance, and as such have a higher rate of participation in riskier sports. Despite this, athletes are still thought to ignore and attempt to overcome pain, as overcoming pain is seen as brave and heroic.
The capacity of the athlete to make the body seem invincible is an integral part of sports professionalism. Emotion has always been a huge part of sports as it can affect both athletes and the spectators themselves. Theorists and sociologists who study the impact of emotions in sports try to classify emotions into categories.
The Business and Culture of Sports: Society, Politics, Economy, Environment, 1st Edition
Young people generally are often portrayed as being full of ambitions and hopes for the world and, therefore, important drivers of cultural change. The United Nations Population Fund describes well this expectation on young people as shapers of the culture of the future: As they grow through adolescence, young people develop their identity and become autonomous individuals. They develop their own ways of perceiving, appreciating, classifying and distinguishing issues, and the codes, symbols and language in which to express them. Culture is everything. Culture is the way we dress, the way we carry our heads, the way we walk, the way we tie our ties. It is not only the fact of writing books or building houses.
School sports refer to athletic programs in the context of the school setting. Interschool programs at the elementary level vary among communities. School sports also include intramural competition, but such programs are very rare. In the mids, intramural sports involved only about , middle, junior, and senior high school students, or 3 percent of the high school—aged population. The objective of school sports is the enrichment of the high school experiences of students within the context of the educational mission of schools.
Sociology of sport , alternately referred to as sports sociology, is a sub-discipline of sociology which focuses on sports as social phenomena. It is an area of study concerned with the relationship between sociology and sports , and also various socio-cultural structures, patterns, and organizations or groups involved with sport. This area of study discusses the positive impact sports have on individual people and society as a whole economically, financially, and socially. Sociology of sport attempts to view the actions and behavior of sports teams and their players through the eyes of a sociologist. Sport is regulated by regulations and rules of behavior, spatial and time constraints, and has governing bodies. It is oriented towards a goal, which makes known both the winner and the loser.
PART ONE: PERSPECTIVES ON SPORT Sport and Social Theory - Peter Donnelly Politics, Power, Policy and Sport - Barrie Houlihan History and Sport - Martin.
Sports and Society
The sociology of sports, which is also referred to as sports sociology, is the study of the relationship between sports and society. It also looks at the relationship between sports and social inequality and social mobility. A large area of study within the sociology of sports is gender , including gender inequality and the role that gender has played in sports throughout history. For example, in the s, the participation of cisgender women in sports was discouraged or banned. It was not until that physical education for cis women was introduced at colleges.
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- Это очень важно. Клушар заморгал.