File Name: adolescence and emerging adulthood arnett .zip
- Emerging Adulthood
- Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood, Books a la Carte Edition, 5th Edition
- Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties
Arnett has studied this age group of twenty-somethings a. Arnett recognized that traditional, typical markers of entering true adulthood e. According to Arnett, the conceptualization of Emerging Adulthood as a distinctly new developmental stage between adolescence and adulthood is a result of four societal changes that occurred in the s and s:.
Emerging adulthood, viewed through the lens of life course health development, has the potential to be a very positive developmental stage with postindustrial societies giving adolescents and emerging adults a greater opportunity for choice and exploration but also greater challenges with greater educational and social role requirements.
This increased agency in the context of less structure is occurring as the human brain is still developing higher-level capacities such as executive functioning. The person-context interactions during EA are many and complex, leading to multiple different pathways through emerging adulthood.
Those with sufficient economic and adult supports as well as personal resources and maturity will be more likely to choose well and embark on a positive trajectory during EA. Those lacking these resources, or those with physical and mental health or intellectual disabilities, may struggle during this period and experience a negative trajectory in the spheres of education, vocation, relationships, and health status.
The path that individuals take from dependency in childhood to independence in adulthood is now a longer and more complicated one than at any other point in history Arnett From the mid- to late twentieth century and extending into the twenty-first century, industrial societies have experienced a surge in the concept of individualism and increased salience of self-realization and personal expression Arnett Moreover, we have seen a dramatic increase in the number of youth seeking post-high school education, which is required for success as the economy transitions from an industrial to an information-based economy Rifkin However, stagnation of wages for low-skilled workers and the lack of work opportunities for youth and young adults, combined with the increased costs of education and independent living, have made the pathway to independence and adulthood prolonged, complex, and varied, creating a new stage in the life course that has been labeled emerging adulthood EA.
While not all life course or developmental scientists agree that emerging adulthood constitutes a new developmental stage, there is agreement that social and economic forces have prolonged entry into adulthood and with significant role and developmental challenges beyond the traditional adolescent years Cote At the end of this stage, mid- to late 20s, most emerging adults live independently, are in long-term relationships, and have clear career paths ahead of them.
How they traverse this life stage is dependent upon the personal, family, and social resources they possess as they enter this stage of life, dynamic and reciprocal interaction between the emerging adult and their environment, and the supports they receive during this stage. The result is that there are many pathways that youth and young adults pursue through this stage to achieve stable adulthood.
Importantly, only a minority of emerging adults are employed in full-time jobs, limiting the economic opportunities they experience U. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Emerging adulthood is considered to be the volitional years , as it offers the most opportunity for identity exploration in the areas of love, work, and worldviews Arnett During this time, individuals begin to develop the characteristic qualities necessary for becoming self-sufficient, engage in mature, committed relationships, assume more adult roles and responsibilities, and obtain a level of education and training that sets the foundation for work during the adult years.
Characterizing emerging adulthood as a stage in the life course has proven to be beneficial to explain the social, cognitive, and psychological development that occurs during this stage. Research demonstrating continued brain development into the late 20s provides further justification for viewing emerging adulthood as a stage in the life course Spear EA is a life stage characterized by changes in person-context cognitive, emotional, physical, and social domains, and the ultimate pathway achieved by the emerging adults during this stage is determined by the ongoing, dynamic, and reciprocal interactions between the individual and their environment.
The degree of agency and role exploration that characterizes EA results in the potential for growth in intellectual and emotional functioning Arnett Important developmental challenges during EA include the continued formation of identity and values, which occur in the midst of frequent changes in personal relationships, living arrangements, vocational and educational pursuits, and social roles Shanahan No stage in life, other than perhaps infancy, experiences such dynamic and complex changes on the personal, social, emotional, neuroanatomical, and developmental levels.
This occurs during often volatile emotional, neurodevelopmental, and social development. Increasing agency occurs at the same time as decreasing institutional and family supports. The theoretical framework developed by Learner and others to create the positive youth development theory nicely explains how the developmental trajectories that emerge during the period of EA are dependent upon multiple influential, bidirectional, person-context coactions. Individuals during emerging adulthood act as co-developers of their own developmental pathways, adaptively responding to different biological, social, cultural, and physical environmental contexts that they influence and are also influenced by Learner and Overton Successfully navigating the developmental challenges inherent in EA will likely, in large part, influence the developmental trajectory of adulthood because these challenges ultimately influence the important adult outcomes of independent living, committed intimate relationships, and vocational and educational achievement.
Youth and young adults with chronic disease or disabilities face additional challenges disease management, disease complications, limitations in opportunities, etc. Health development integrates the concepts of health and developmental processes into a unified whole. Health development unfolds continuously over the lifespan, from conception to death, and is shaped by prior experiences and environmental interactions. Health development results from adaptive, multilevel, and reciprocal interactions between individuals and their physical, natural, and social environments.
Health development is sensitive to the timing and social structuring of environmental exposures and experiences. Health development phenotypes are malleable and enabled and constrained by evolution to enhance adaptability to diverse environments.
Optimal health development promotes survival, enhances well-being, and protects against disease. Health development results from the balanced interactions of molecular, physiological, behavioral, cultural, and evolutionary processes. The above table outlines the seven principles of the Life Course Health Development framework.
These principles can be applied to the stage of emerging adulthood in a limited fashion due to the limited research literature focused on this life stage.
However, conceptually, using the seven principles to view the stage of emerging adulthood can be instructive and can lead to additional research questions see end of this article. For example, Principle 5 states that health development expressions are malleable and enable and constrain health development pathways and plasticity. Principle 4 states that health development is sensitive to life course timing and social structuring of the environment.
As we described above, this is particularly true of emerging adulthood, where the interaction between age, personal development, and environment peers, schools, social institutions, etc. Multiple factors can influence the life course during EA, including factors at the macro-level historical and societal influences , meso-level parent-child relationship, family environment, and socioeconomic status , and microlevel individual cognitive, personality, and emotional development.
The timing of these exposures during EA, which we consider a critical or sensitive period in the life course development, can significantly impact adult outcomes. For example, an emerging adult that engages in criminal activity and is convicted of a felony will suffer repercussions that will greatly diminish their chances of achieving success in relationships and work. In the sections that follow, we review the macro-, meso-, and microlevel influences occurring during EA for emerging adults generally.
Next we explore the additional challenges faced by those with selected chronic health or developmental conditions including mental illness or substance abuse, diabetes, chronic renal failure, and autism, to serve as case studies of the increased complexity faced by emerging adults with chronic disease.
Finally, we finish up with a set of questions and issues that are research priorities for developing an LCHD research agenda on the stage of emerging adulthood.
Emerging adulthood, like many other developmental stages, is a period in the life course that is culturally constructed and not universal Arnett , Thus, the very existence and trajectory of EA are dependent on macro-level societal expectations and influences. For many years, it was theorized that an individual transitioned from adolescence which begins in puberty and ends in the late teens into young adulthood.
Over history and cross-culturally, the length of time during which an individual spends in adolescence has been determined by the age at which the person enters marriage or a committed relationship Schlegel and Barry III , Gilmore So massive culture and reproductive change led to a change in life history with the addition of a new period of development.
It is theorized by those promoting emerging adulthood as a new life stage that the same kind of massive cultural and reproductive change is happening once again and new social and cultural demands of adult life necessitate a longer and more complex prologue to adult life.
Although the functional outcome of EA, causing a delayed transition to adulthood, appears relatively novel, this practice of prolonging the transition to adulthood may be dated back to early modern English society from the s to s Ben-Amos It was not until industrialization in America began to emerge in the nineteenth century that the concept of individualism developed and strengthened Rotundo The twentieth century marked the first time that an individual could obtain and gain control over the resources that would allow them to choose the timing of major life events and personal expression was valued in society Modell As we move forward into the twenty-first century, individualism in contemporary postindustrial society continues to strengthen, while the age at which individuals marry continues to increase, and individuals increasingly seek to pursue other life course events Modell ; Alwin ; Bellah et al.
Longitudinal studies that span early childhood through EA indicate that there is both continuity and discontinuity of healthy and unhealthy paths and outcomes. Masten et al. In this section, we will be discussing the impact of the parent-child relationship, family environment, and other sociodemographic factors, such as socioeconomic status SES and its influence in EA.
The quality of parent-child relationships during EA is, in large part, a function of the history of early parent-child attachment experiences. A history of positive attachment experiences will ultimately provide a foundation for positive interactions with others and foster secure, lasting relationships in EA which subsequently influence the LCHD Mikulincer M and Shaver PR Simultaneously, social learning theory suggests that styles of family interactions learned in early and middle childhood are carried by emerging adults into adulthood Whitbeck et al.
Alternatively, inadequate parenting, disrupted family bonds, and poverty are environmental risks for childhood-onset conduct, behavioral and emotional problems, and educational underachievement that can persist into adolescence and emerging adulthood Moffit and Caspi Adverse events experienced in childhood such as parental divorce or alcoholism or the experience of abuse are major risk factors for the leading causes of illness and death as well as poor quality of life in adults in the USA.
Disruptions in the parent relationship e. Importantly, parental acceptance and support for independence have been linked to higher self-esteem, individualism, and feelings of worthiness among emerging adults Ryan and Lynch Persistent connectedness to parents facilitates rather than undermines ongoing identity development in emerging adulthood Grotevant and Cooper ; Ryan and Lynch Socioeconomic status SES , family supports, and the neighborhood environment all can contribute to the positive or negative life trajectory prior to and during EA Galobardes et al.
Socioeconomic status has been identified as one of the most important health determinants throughout the life course Miller et al. In addition to being an important predictor of disease-specific morbidity and mortality in adulthood, early childhood poverty has been associated with lower adult educational attainment Duncan and Brooks-Gunn Educational achievement has a major influence on the life trajectory, including financial stability and health in EA and onward throughout adulthood.
Furthermore, research has indicated that individuals who delay enrollment past the age of 22 are less likely to ever enroll in postsecondary education and less likely to complete a degree Feliciano and Ashtiani Earning a college education results in not only higher lifetime earnings but enhancement of multiple aspects of psychosocial development Evans and Cassells However, while SES has been found to be predictive of educational attainment, the impact of poverty can be mitigated by a number of factors such as individual characteristics of self-efficacy and hope.
Students from poor families that have high self-efficacy and a similar concept of hope for educational attainment do equally as well in school as their higher SES peers Osgood et al. These studies suggest that in addition to SES, individual characteristics also have a large influence on outcomes of EA and that these characteristics can be influenced through individual interventions. Individual characteristics and development are discussed in the next section.
As discussed in previous sections, individualism and the qualities of character have become increasingly important in the transition to EA and ultimately reaching full adulthood in postindustrial, developed societies. In order to achieve individualism and obtain these important qualities of character, one needs to reach some degree of cognitive and psychological maturity, as well as possess some level of resilience.
These individual factors are discussed in this section. One of the identified qualities of character that is important in EA and reaching full adulthood is independent decision-making. Recent neuroscience research indicates that brain development particularly in the prefrontal cortex continues well into the third decade of life, ultimately resulting in the integration and coordination of cognitions, emotion and action, and strategic executive control Luciana et al.
The continuous unfolding and acquisition of specific neurodevelopmental capacities during adolescences and EA influence the acquisition of goal directedness and future orientation that have been observed behaviorally during EA Dahl ; Nelson et al. As new capacities emerge, they are available to solve problems, delay gratification, and filter unnecessary input.
With maturation of these skills, emerging adults are also more capable of reflecting on the influence of their environment and on their internal state, regulate their emotions, and use problem-solving skills to effectively compromise, which is important for the development of meaningful social interactions and personal relationships as well as in the work environment.
However, the preceding paragraph assumes that the individual has experienced optimal neurodevelopment up to the point that they enter the stage of EA. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to chronic stress during childhood e. For example, repeated exposure to stressful events has been associated with structural differences in specific brain regions i. Furthermore, preliminary studies go on to suggest that there may be sensitive periods of brain development with increased susceptibility to the effects of stress and adverse events.
These behaviors may in turn interfere with the ongoing development of an optimal pathway to adulthood. An impulsive emerging adult fueled by alcohol and despair is at high risk for suicide. It is crucial for service providers to recognize the level of cognitive maturation an emerging adult possesses and tailor their interventions and supports based on this.
Identity formation is a major developmental activity during EA. Identity development, occurs in a number of dimensions: 1 psychological dimension, or ego identity via a sense of temporal-spatial continuity and its concomitants; 2 the personal dimension, or a behavioral and character repertoire that differentiates the individuals; and 3 the social dimension, or recognized roles within a community.
These components come together during the stage of identity formation adolescence and EA and stabilization EA and young adulthood , and once the identity is considered stable, this is when a relatively firm sense of ego identity is developed, behavior and character become stabilized, and community-sanctioned roles are acquired Identity formation during adolescence was thought to be a critical milestone in adolescence; however, it has been recognized that in certain societal contexts, identity formation continues beyond adolescence.
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood, Books a la Carte Edition, 5th Edition
Emerging adulthood has been proposed as a new life stage between adolescence and young adulthood, lasting roughly from ages 18 to Five features make emerging adulthood distinctive: identity explorations, instability, self-focus, feeling in-between adolescence and adulthood, and a sense of broad possibilities for the future. Emerging adulthood is found mainly in industrialized countries, where most young people obtain tertiary education and median ages of entering marriage and parenthood are around There are variations in emerging adulthood within industrialized countries. It lasts longest in Europe, and in Asian industrialized countries, the self-focused freedom of emerging adulthood is balanced by obligations to parents and by conservative views of sexuality. In non-industrialized countries, although today emerging adulthood exists only among the middle-class elite, it can be expected to grow in the 21st century as these countries become more affluent.
Summary: Helps students understand how culture impacts development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Grounded in a global cultural perspective within and outside of the US , this text enriches the discussion with historical context and an interdisciplinary approach, including studies from fields such as anthropology and sociology, in addition to the compelling psychological research on adolescent development. This book also takes into account the period of "emerging adulthood" ages , a term coined by the author, and an area of study for which Arnett is a leading expert. Arnett continues the fifth edition with new and updated studies, both U. MyDevelopmentLab is an integral part of the Arnett program. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience- for you and your students.
Emerging adulthood, viewed through the lens of life course health development, has the potential to be a very positive developmental stage with postindustrial societies giving adolescents and emerging adults a greater opportunity for choice and exploration but also greater challenges with greater educational and social role requirements. This increased agency in the context of less structure is occurring as the human brain is still developing higher-level capacities such as executive functioning. The person-context interactions during EA are many and complex, leading to multiple different pathways through emerging adulthood. Those with sufficient economic and adult supports as well as personal resources and maturity will be more likely to choose well and embark on a positive trajectory during EA. Those lacking these resources, or those with physical and mental health or intellectual disabilities, may struggle during this period and experience a negative trajectory in the spheres of education, vocation, relationships, and health status. The path that individuals take from dependency in childhood to independence in adulthood is now a longer and more complicated one than at any other point in history Arnett
So, when Arnett concedes that emerging adulthood is culturally specific, non- theory by suggesting that adolescence is no longer the primary period of identity arcomalaga.org.
Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties
Emerging adulthood has been identified by Arnett as a new developmental stage that comprises years. Research on year-olds who have overcome difficult upbringings can provide insights on how to respond to other young people whose development is compromised. As a society, it is recommended that we pay more attention to the particular circumstances of emerging adults and that we allocate more social service resources to the members of this age group who are experiencing difficulties.
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