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Physical Activity and Health

Regular physical activity is important for optimal physical and mental health. Furthermore, physical inactivity has been identified as a leading cause of death U. Department of Health and Human Services, This information highlights the public health challenge of increasing participation in physical activity to enhance physical health and to buoy the psychological benefits associated with physical activity.

This chapter presents a brief synopsis of the evidence that compels the study of exercise psychology. In addition, as a basis for assimilating the content of subsequent chapters, this chapter includes explanations for terms often used in exercise psychology, important methodological and conceptual clarifications, and a preface to the topics addressed throughout this text.

Keywords: exercise , mental health , physical activity , motivation , physical activity assessment. Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being, while movement and methodical physical exercise save it and preserve it.

Throughout most of history the physical requirements of survival have been a defining element of human existence. However, within the last years, industrial and technological advancements have made survival no longer intricately dependent on physical demands. With little need for physical activity to perform important work for society, ease of transportation, and almost effortless access to information, most of the population must make a conscious effort to incorporate physical activity into their lifestyles.

The challenge to self-regulate exercise behavior has had unexpected, negative health consequences. This challenge, along with the documented psychological benefits associated with participating in physical activity, is central to the arguments supporting the study of exercise psychology.

This chapter provides a brief presentation of the evidence that compels the study of exercise psychology. In addition, it presents explanations for terms that are used in the field of exercise psychology. Together these will serve to define the broad scope of this interdisciplinary field. The cross-fertilization of knowledge has had a tremendously positive effect on the development of exercise psychology. In addition, this chapter clarifies important methodological and conceptual issues that will provide a p.

In particular, a number of issues relevant to the combined investigation of physical activity and behavior are included—for example, the challenge of assessing physical activity, the relationship of physical health outcomes to mental health outcomes within the context of standard exercise prescription guidelines for physical health outcomes, and, although minimal and far outweighed by the benefits, the health risks associated with exercise.

This chapter also includes a preface to the topics addressed in this text. In the Surgeon General's Report identified physical inactivity as a leading cause of death. Since the publication of that report, physical inactivity has contributed to the deaths of approximately , Americans per year Danaei et al.

Promoting physical activity has clear relevance to improving physical and mental health. This text provides in-depth analyses of the literature that examines the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and psychobiological antecedents and consequences of physical activity, with a focus on the adoption and maintenance of physical activity and its effects on psychological well-being. Regular physical activity can help in controlling weight; reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and some cancers; improving bone strength; and improving the ability to do daily activities and preventing falls in older adults USDHHS, Department of Health and Human Service, These physical and mental health benefits, along with the potential reduction of the dramatic financial costs of poor health, provide great impetus for the promotion of physical activity as a public health goal.

An understanding of the mental health benefits of exercise has developed from an appreciation of the value of interdisciplinary investigation into the psychobiological nature of the physical activity experience. The study of exercise psychology provides an excellent model for examining the link between the mind-brain and the body.

This age-old concept is highlighted in the quote that begins this chapter. This is a central proposition of the conceptualization of positive psychology by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi. The terms physical activity and exercise are often used interchangeably; however, there are subtle differences. In the literature examples of physical activity include activities of daily living, participation in sports, exercise, and leisure-time activity. However, the literature goes further in defining exercise as a form of structured physical activity with the specific objective of improving or maintaining physical fitness or health.

The psychological study of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors of physical activity versus exercise also maintains this subtle distinction between structured physical activity and physical activity encompassing all types of movement. However, the primary focus of this text is the development of empirical evidence in support of physical activity programs that promote health.

A major challenge in developing such knowledge is assessing physical activity as a stimulus for improvements in health. Nonetheless, throughout this text and in parallel p. The historical development of exercise psychology has been fueled by a broad range of disciplines and interdisciplinary approaches.

In , the research journal Journal of Sport Psychology changed its name to the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology to include this promising area of investigation. Today inquiries into the behavioral aspects of exercise and physical activity originate from health psychology, rehabilitation psychology, positive psychology, psychobiology, neuroscience, behavioral epidemiology, behavioral medicine, and exercise science. Furthermore, scientific journals from these disciplines and subdisciplines frequently publish articles on research that uses physical activity as an independent variable.

The plethora of work parallels the demand for knowledge in this area. Comprehensive historical accounts of the field of exercise psychology have been presented by Rejeski and Thompson and Buckworth and Dishman The exercise psychology literature most often examines exercise or physical activity as an independent variable.

A clear understanding of the benefits of this stimulus physical activity or exercise requires an operational definition. When interpreting the exercise literature one must recognize that the exercise stimulus can be either acute—a single relatively short bout of exercise—or chronic—exercise that is carried out repeatedly over time, usually for a number of weeks. To further describe the physical challenge of an exercise program the duration of the activity, intensity of the activity, the type of activity, and the frequency per week must be identified.

Alternatively, individuals can accumulate 30 minutes over the course of a day with shorter bouts that total 30 minutes. These guidelines are considered minimal recommended amounts. Finally, the exercise stimulus does not have to be aerobic. It can also be anaerobic, which includes resistance exercise weight training , and it can be a combination of activities. These types of exercise have received little attention in the exercise psychology literature. Furthermore, the mechanisms that explain the physiological adaptations to exercise that impact physical health have received much attention, whereas the psychobiological mechanisms that explain the mental health benefits have only recently been investigated.

It is intriguing to consider the exercise stimuli that are necessary to elicit positive mental health outcomes, and which mechanisms explain these adaptations. Interestingly, while the mental health benefits of aerobic exercise have begun to be explored, the psychological responses and mental health benefits of anaerobic exercise, resistance exercise weight lifting , and combinations of activities have received little attention in the literature.

Thus, although aerobic physical activity is associated with significant mental health benefits, the challenge still exists to define a specific exercise prescription for a specific mental health benefit. In addition, the exercise psychology literature has understandably struggled in its attempt to measure physical activity as a perception and as an objective physical stimulus. Furthermore, addressing the dose—response relationship with psychological outcomes necessitates the accurate measurement of physical activity.

More specifically, self-report measures are relatively inexpensive, are easy to administer, and can be used with large samples. Conversely, objective measures, although they are not subject to recall error and are generally unobtrusive, can often fail to assess specific types of activities water sports, arm exercise, walking or running on an incline and can be very expensive.

In addition, the use of a specific technique may be limited by the ability of the participant to follow instructions.

Thus the age and any special needs or characteristics of the participants must be considered. Welk, Blair, Wood, Jones, and Thompson have proposed that accelerometers, which measure movement based on acceleration and deceleration of the body, provide the most reliable and valid measure of physical activity for research purposes. Depending on the research question, the perception of activity may be more critical to the research question or outcome of interest than the actual or objective assessment of physical activity.

Tudor-Locke and Meyers in their review have suggested that the use of multiple measures will likely increase the accuracy of the assessment. Our understanding of exercise psychology will continue to progress in parallel with the improvements in the tools for assessing physical activity. An aspect of exercise that must be considered prior to embarking on an examination of its benefits is the potential health risks associated with physical activity participation.

While the benefits clearly outweigh the risks USDHHS, , understanding the risks provides insight that can be used to minimize the possibility of an adverse event or response to physical activity. The two most discussed risks are myocardial infarction and musculoskeletal injuries. Individuals with underlying heart disease are at increased risk of a cardiac event during physical activity because of the additional stress it places on the heart and circulatory system.

However, this stress also serves as a stimulus for improved cardiovascular function. Cardiac patients can experience considerable improvements, but must take appropriate clinical precautions when participating in physical activity ACSM, Most physical activity—related injuries can be categorized as overuse injuries. Thus the risk of these injuries can be minimized by a reduction in the frequency, intensity, or the duration of the activity.

The recommendations for health-related physical activity by the ACSM are moderate enough to limit the incidence of overuse injuries for most people Pate et al. At very high levels of activity health problems can include dehydration, hyperthermia and hypothermia from exercise in extreme environmental conditions, amenorrhea, anemia, and suppression of immune function.

In general, these conditions, when monitored, can be improved with an appropriate decrease in the level of physical exertion or limitation of physical activity participation. Several mental health problems related to exercise have received some attention in the literature. In addition, in habitual exercisers withdrawal from exercise can elicit depressive symptoms, anxiety, and symptoms of emotional distress Mondin et al.

Current understanding of the extent and severity of exercise dependency across the population is very limited. Interestingly, Coen and Ogles have found that participants who rated high on exercise dependency had less psychopathology and less body image distortion than individuals with anorexia nervosa.

This distinction suggests that although exercise dependency and anorexia share some similar characteristics, the severity of the potential medical and psychological consequences is much greater for anorexic individuals. Finally, Morgan, Brown, Raglin, O'Connor, and Ellickson have reported that athletes, as a result of overtraining when the volume and intensity of exercise exceeds an individual's recovery capacity and performance is compromised , can experience symptoms of chronic fatigue, muscle soreness, insomnia, and disturbed mood.

Although substantial evidence supports the detrimental psychological p. Thus the challenge of increasing physical activity is pertinent to enhancing physical and mental health and addressing the tremendous cost to society of inactivity.

The contents of this authoritative and comprehensive text present the breadth and depth of empirical contributions using state-of-the-science theories and approaches in exercise psychology. The authors are leading investigators who have made significant scientific contributions to the literature examining the behavioral aspects of physical activity, and each chapter presents a summary of scientific advances in the topic area as a foundation for future investigation.

To provide a context for interpreting the contents of this text, the second chapter of this introductory section addresses the epidemiology of physical activity. Subsequent sections address the effects of physical activity on mental health; knowledge gathered using psychobiological perspectives; behavioral factors that affect exercise motivation; the benefits of physical activity in special populations, including individuals with physical disabilities, older adults, and cancer patients; and promising areas for additional investigation.

American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription 8th ed. Find this resource:. Barnes P. Physical activity among adults: United States, and Hyattsville, MD: U. Bouchard, C. Physical activity and health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Physical Activity and Health

Barton Sr. For four decades, his research has dealt with the role of physical activity, and the lack thereof, on physiology, metabolism, and indicators of health, taking into account genetic uniqueness. He has performed research on the contributions of gene sequence variation and the benefits to be expected from regular activity in terms of changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors Dr. Bouchard has served as program leader for four consensus conferences and symposia pertaining to various aspects of physical activity and health. He has published more than 1, scientific papers and has edited several books and monographs dealing with physical activity and health. Steven N. His research focuses on the associations between lifestyle and health, with a specific emphasis on exercise, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic disease.

Physical activity and health bouchard pdf. Claude Bouchard, PhD, is executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, the campus of the.

Aerobic fitness and leisure physical activity as moderators of the stress-illness relation

The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition , provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in comparison with the harmful consequences of physical inactivity. Written by leading scientists from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition , brings together the results of the most important studies on the relationship between physical activity, sedentarism, and various health outcomes.

Regular physical activity is important for optimal physical and mental health. Furthermore, physical inactivity has been identified as a leading cause of death U. Department of Health and Human Services, This information highlights the public health challenge of increasing participation in physical activity to enhance physical health and to buoy the psychological benefits associated with physical activity. This chapter presents a brief synopsis of the evidence that compels the study of exercise psychology.

Окажись дома. Через пять гудков он услышал ее голос. - Здравствуйте, Это Сьюзан Флетчер. Извините, меня нет дома, но если вы оставите свое сообщение… Беккер выслушал все до конца. Где же .

 - Есть множество такого… что и не снилось нашим мудрецам. - Прошу прощения. - Шекспир, - уточнил Хейл.  - Гамлет.

Губы Стратмора приоткрылись, произнеся последнее в его жизни слово: Сьюзан. Воздух, ворвавшийся в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, воспламенился. В ослепительной вспышке света коммандер Тревор Стратмор из человека превратился сначала в едва различимый силуэт, а затем в легенду.

Сорокадвухлетний португальский наемник был одним из лучших профессионалов, находящихся в его распоряжении. Он уже много лет работал на АНБ. Родившийся и выросший в Лиссабоне, он выполнял задания агентства по всей Европе.

Огромный лист гофрированного металла слетел с капота автомобиля и пролетел прямо у него над головой. С гулко стучащим сердцем Беккер надавил на газ и исчез в темноте. ГЛАВА 84 Джабба вздохнул с облегчением, припаяв последний контакт. Выключив паяльник, он отложил в сторону фонарик и некоторое время отдыхал, лежа под большим стационарным компьютером. Затекшая шея причиняла ему сильную боль.

 А-а… Зигмунд Шмидт, - с трудом нашелся Беккер.

4 Response
  1. Benigno B.

    The goal was to gather information regarding the mechanisms by which exercise exhibits its buffering effects.

  2. Astolfo Q.

    Claude Bouchard · Steven N. Blair · William Haskell Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive treatment of the research The second edition of Physical Activity and Health continues to offer clear, user-​friendly.

  3. Matilda H.

    Request PDF | On Jan 1, , Claude Bouchard and others published Why Study Physical Activity and Health? | Find, read and cite all the.

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