File Name: blood and body fluids physiology .zip
- Physiology of Body Fluid Compartments and Body Fluid Movements
- 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
- 25.2B: Fluid Compartments
- Extracellular fluid
NCBI Bookshelf. Joshua E. Brinkman ; Bradley Dorius ; Sandeep Sharma. Authors Joshua E. Brinkman 1 ; Bradley Dorius 2 ; Sandeep Sharma 3.
Physiology of Body Fluid Compartments and Body Fluid Movements
Some of the most common and important problems in clinical medicine arise because of abnormalities in the control systems that maintain this constancy of the body fluids. In this chapter and in the following chapters on the kidneys, we discuss the overall regulation of body fluid volume, constituents of the extracellular fluid, acid-base balance, and control of fluid exchange between extracellular and intracellular compartments. The relative constancy of the body fluids is remarkable because there is continuous exchange of fluid and solutes with the external environment, as well as within the different compartments of the body. For example, there is a highly variable fluid intake that must be carefully matched by equal output of water from the body to prevent body fluid volumes from increasing or decreasing. Intake of water, however, is highly variable among different people and even within the same person on different days, depending on climate, habits, and level of physical activity. Some of the water losses cannot be precisely regulated. This loss is minimized by the cholesterol-filled cornified layer of the skin, which provides a barrier against excessive loss by diffusion.
Blood , fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products. Technically, blood is a transport liquid pumped by the heart or an equivalent structure to all parts of the body, after which it is returned to the heart to repeat the process. Blood is both a tissue and a fluid. It is a tissue because it is a collection of similar specialized cells that serve particular functions. These cells are suspended in a liquid matrix plasma , which makes the blood a fluid. If blood flow ceases, death will occur within minutes because of the effects of an unfavourable environment on highly susceptible cells.
26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
Extracellular fluid ECF denotes all body fluid outside the cells of any multicellular organism. Extracellular fluid is the internal environment of all multicellular animals , and in those animals with a blood circulatory system , a proportion of this fluid is blood plasma. Lymph makes up a small percentage of the interstitial fluid. The ECF can also be seen as having two components — plasma and lymph as a delivery system, and interstitial fluid for water and solute exchange with the cells. The extracellular fluid, in particular the interstitial fluid, constitutes the body's internal environment that bathes all of the cells in the body.
Two different relations of extracellular fluids to blood plasma. Page 3. PHYSIOLOGY OF BODY FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES. in which potassium replaces.
25.2B: Fluid Compartments
The chemical reactions of life take place in aqueous solutions. The dissolved substances in a solution are called solutes. In the human body, solutes vary in different parts of the body, but may include proteins—including those that transport lipids, carbohydrates, and, very importantly, electrolytes. Often in medicine, an electrolyte is referred to as a mineral dissociated from a salt that carries an electrical charge an ion. In the body, water moves through semi-permeable membranes of cells and from one compartment of the body to another by a process called osmosis.
The composition of tissue fluid depends upon the exchanges between the cells in the biological tissue and the blood. This means that fluid composition varies between body compartments. The cytosol or intracellular fluid consists mostly of water, dissolved ions, small molecules, and large, water-soluble molecules such as proteins. This mixture of small molecules is extraordinarily complex, as the variety of enzymes that are involved in cellular metabolism is immense. These enzymes are involved in the biochemical processes that sustain cells and activate or deactivate toxins.
A significant percentage of the human body is water, which includes intracellular and extracellular fluids. In physiology, body water is the water content of the human body. It makes up a significant percentage of the total composition of a body.
The major body-fluid compartments includ: intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid plasma, interstitial fluid, and transcellular fluid. The fluids of the various tissues of the human body are divided into fluid compartments. Fluid compartments are generally used to compare the position and characteristics of fluid in relation to the fluid within other compartments.
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Blood plasma. Summary of ions. 4 All molecules and ions in the body fluids, including water molecules and dissolved Normal physiology is restored.
Body Fluid Management pp Cite as. These compartments contain the body water and are surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane through which fluids pass from one space to another and which separates them. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
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