File Name: new technology and sustainable agriculture .zip
China has traditionally placed tremendous importance on agricultural research. Meanwhile, in recent years, sustainable agriculture has been increasingly highlighted in both policy agenda and the capital market. What is the truth?
- Sustainable agriculture
- Assessing the Sustainability of Agricultural Technology Options for Poor Rural Farmers
- Agriculture 4.0 – The Future Of Farming Technology
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs.
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs. There are many methods to increase the sustainability of agriculture.
When developing agriculture within sustainable food systems , it is important to develop flexible business process and farming practices. Agriculture has an enormous environmental footprint , playing a significant role in causing climate change , water scarcity , land degradation , deforestation and other processes;  it is simultaneously causing environmental changes and being impacted by these changes. For example, one of the best ways to mitigate climate change is to create sustainable food systems based on sustainable agriculture.
Sustainable agriculture provides a potential solution to enable agricultural systems to feed a growing population within the changing environmental conditions. In Franklin H. King in his book Farmers of Forty Centuries discussed the advantages of sustainable agriculture, and warned that such practices would be vital to farming in the future.
There was an international symposium on sustainability in horticulture by the International Society of Horticultural Science at the International Horticultural Congress in Toronto in In the US National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of ,  the term "sustainable agriculture" is defined as an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term:.
The British scholar Jules Pretty has stated several key principles associated with sustainability in agriculture: . It is considered to be reconciliation ecology , accommodating biodiversity within human landscapes. There is a debate on the definition of sustainability regarding agriculture. The definition could be characterized by two different approaches: an ecocentric approach and a technocentric approach.
The technocentric approach argues that sustainability can be attained through a variety of strategies, from the view that state-led modification of the industrial system like conservation-oriented farming systems should be implemented, to the argument that biotechnology is the best way to meet the increasing demand for food. One can look at the topic of sustainable agriculture through two different lenses: multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services.
Those that employ the multifunctional agriculture philosophy focus on farm-centered approaches, and define function as being the outputs of agricultural activity. These functions include renewable resource management, landscape conservation and biodiversity. It is also claimed sustainable agriculture is best considered as an ecosystem approach to agriculture, called agroecology.
Most agricultural professionals agree that there is a "moral obligation to pursue [the] goal [of] sustainability. Practices that can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tilling of the soil leading to erosion and irrigation without adequate drainage leading to salinization.
The most important factors for a farming site are climate , soil, nutrients and water resources. Of the four, water and soil conservation are the most amenable to human intervention. When farmers grow and harvest crops, they remove some nutrients from the soil. Without replenishment, the land suffers from nutrient depletion and becomes either unusable or suffers from reduced yields.
Sustainable agriculture depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use or need of non-renewable resources, such as natural gas or mineral ores. A farm that can "produce perpetually", yet has negative effects on environmental quality elsewhere is not sustainable agriculture. An example of a case in which a global view may be warranted is the application of fertilizer or manure , which can improve the productivity of a farm but can pollute nearby rivers and coastal waters eutrophication.
The other extreme can also be undesirable, as the problem of low crop yields due to exhaustion of nutrients in the soil has been related to rainforest destruction.
In Asia, the specific amount of land needed for sustainable farming is about In some cases, a small unit of aquaculture is included AARI Possible sources of nitrates that would, in principle, be available indefinitely, include:.
The last option was proposed in the s, but is only gradually becoming feasible. Other options include long-term crop rotations , returning to natural cycles that annually flood cultivated lands returning lost nutrients such as the flooding of the Nile , the long-term use of biochar , and use of crop and livestock landraces that are adapted to less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of nutrients.
Crops that require high levels of soil nutrients can be cultivated in a more sustainable manner with appropriate fertilizer management practices. Phosphate is a primary component in fertilizer. It is the second most important nutrient for plants after nitrogen,  and is often a limiting factor. It is needed for root ramification and strength and seed formation, and can increase disease resistance.
Phosphorus is found in the soil in both inorganic and organic forms  and makes up approximately 0. Phosphorus fertilizers are manufactured from rock phosphate. Land degradation is becoming a severe global problem. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change : "About a quarter of the Earth's ice-free land area is subject to human-induced degradation medium confidence. Soil erosion from agricultural fields is estimated to be currently 10 to 20 times no tillage to more than times conventional tillage higher than the soil formation rate medium confidence.
Intensive agriculture reduces the carbon level in soil, impairing soil structure, crop growth and ecosystem functioning,  and accelerating climate change. Soil management techniques include no-till farming , keyline design and windbreaks to reduce wind erosion, reincorporation of organic matter into the soil, reducing soil salinization , and preventing water run-off. As the global population increases and demand for food increases, there is pressure on land as a resource. In land-use planning and management, considering the impacts of land-use changes on factors such as soil erosion can support long-term agricultural sustainability, as shown by a study of Wadi Ziqlab, a dry area in the Middle East where farmers graze livestock and grow olives, vegetables, and grains.
Looking back over the 20th century shows that for people in poverty, following environmentally sound land practices has not always been a viable option due to many complex and challenging life circumstances. Converting big parts of the land surface to agriculture have severe environmental and health consequences. For example, it leads to rise in Zoonotic disease like the Coronavirus disease , by degrading natural buffers between humans and animals, reducing biodiversity and creating big groups of genetically similar animals.
Land is a finite resource on Earth. Although expansion of agricultural land can decrease biodiversity and contribute to deforestation , the picture is complex; for instance, a study examining the introduction of sheep by Norse settlers Vikings to the Faroe Islands of the North Atlantic concluded that, over time, the fine partitioning of land plots contributed more to soil erosion and degradation than grazing itself. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that in coming decades, cropland will continue to be lost to industrial and urban development , along with reclamation of wetlands, and conversion of forest to cultivation, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and increased soil erosion.
In modern agriculture, energy is used in on-farm mechanisation, food processing, storage, and transportation processes. The International Energy Agency projects higher prices of non-renewable energy resources as a result of fossil fuel resources being depleted.
It may therefore decrease global food security unless action is taken to 'decouple' fossil fuel energy from food production, with a move towards 'energy-smart' agricultural systems including renewable energy.
Using solar and wind power for this required cooling and sanitation offers a more sustainable path to meat, egg, dairy, and other protein- and mineral-rich food production. The environmental cost of transportation could be avoided if people use local products. In some areas sufficient rainfall is available for crop growth, but many other areas require irrigation.
For irrigation systems to be sustainable, they require proper management to avoid salinization and must not use more water from their source than is naturally replenishable. Otherwise, the water source effectively becomes a non-renewable resource. Improvements in water well drilling technology and submersible pumps , combined with the development of drip irrigation and low-pressure pivots, have made it possible to regularly achieve high crop yields in areas where reliance on rainfall alone had previously made successful agriculture unpredictable.
However, this progress has come at a price. In many areas, such as the Ogallala Aquifer , the water is being used faster than it can be replenished. According to the UC Davis Agricultural Sustainability Institute, several steps must be taken to develop drought-resistant farming systems even in "normal" years with average rainfall. These measures include both policy and management actions: . Indicators for sustainable water resource development include the average annual flow of rivers from rainfall, flows from outside a country, the percentage of water coming from outside a country, and gross water withdrawal.
Costs, such as environmental problems, not covered in traditional accounting systems which take into account only the direct costs of production incurred by the farmer are known as externalities. Netting studied sustainability and intensive agriculture in smallholder systems through history. There are several studies incorporating externalities such as ecosystem services, biodiversity, land degradation, and sustainable land management in economic analysis.
These include The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity study and the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative which seek to establish an economic cost-benefit analysis on the practice of sustainable land management and sustainable agriculture. Triple bottom line frameworks include social and environmental alongside a financial bottom line. A sustainable future can be feasible if growth in material consumption and population is slowed down and if there is a drastic increase in the efficiency of material and energy use.
To make that transition, long- and short-term goals will need to be balanced enhancing equity and quality of life. Other practices include growing a diverse number of perennial crops in a single field, each of which would grow in separate season so as not to compete with each other for natural resources. Nitrogen fixation from legumes, for example, used in conjunction with plants that rely on nitrate from soil for growth, helps to allow the land to be reused annually.
Legumes will grow for a season and replenish the soil with ammonium and nitrate, and the next season other plants can be seeded and grown in the field in preparation for harvest. Sustainable methods of weed management may help reduce the development of herbicide-resistant weeds. There are also many ways to practice sustainable animal husbandry. Some of the tools to grazing management include fencing off the grazing area into smaller areas called paddocks , lowering stock density, and moving the stock between paddocks frequently.
An increased production is a goal of intensification. Sustainable intensification encompasses specific agriculture methods that increase production and at the same time help improve environmental outcomes. The desired outcomes of the farm are achieved without the need for more land cultivation or destruction of natural habitat; the system performance is upgraded with no net environmental cost. Sustainable Intensification has become a priority for the United Nations. Sustainable intensification differs from prior intensification methods by specifically placing importance on broader environmental outcomes.
By the year ; it was predicted in nations a combined total of million farms used sustainable intensification. The amount of agricultural land covered by this is million ha of land. The capacity for ecosystem services to be strong enough to allow a reduction in use of non-renewable inputs whilst maintaining or boosting yields has been the subject of much debate. Vertical farming is a concept with the potential advantages of year-round production, isolation from pests and diseases, controllable resource recycling and reduced transportation costs.
Water efficiency can be improved by reducing the need for irrigation and using alternative methods. Such methods includes: researching on drought resistant crops, monitoring plant transpiration and reducing soil evaporation. Drought resistant crops have been researched extensively as a means to overcome the issue of water shortage. They are modified genetically so they can adapt in an environment with little water.
This is beneficial as it reduces the need for irrigation and helps conserve water. Although they have been extensively researched, significant results have not been achieved as most of the successful species will have no overall impact on water conservation. However, some grains like rice , for example, have been successfully genetically modified to be drought resistant. Soil amendments include using compost from recycling centers.
Using compost from yard and kitchen waste uses available resources in the area. Abstinence from soil tillage before planting and leaving the plant residue after harvesting reduces soil water evaporation; It also serves to prevent soil erosion.
Assessing the Sustainability of Agricultural Technology Options for Poor Rural Farmers
Innovation is more important in modern agriculture than ever before. The industry as a whole is facing huge challenges, from rising costs of supplies, a shortage of labor, and changes in consumer preferences for transparency and sustainability. There is increasing recognition from agriculture corporations that solutions are needed for these challenges. Major technology innovations in the space have focused around areas such as indoor vertical farming, automation and robotics, livestock technology, modern greenhouse practices, precision agriculture and artificial intelligence, and blockchain. Indoor vertical farming can be defined as the practice of growing produce stacked one above another in a closed and controlled environment. By using growing shelves mounted vertically, it significantly reduces the amount of land space needed to grow plants compared to traditional farming methods.
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Agriculture 4.0 – The Future Of Farming Technology
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The World Government Summit launched a report called Agriculture 4. The report addresses the four main developments placing pressure on agriculture to meeting the demands of the future: Demographics, Scarcity of natural resources, Climate change, and Food waste. The report states that, although demand is continuously growing, by we will need to produce 70 percent more food.
И где же это кольцо? - гнул свое Беккер. Клушар, похоже, не расслышал. Глаза его отсутствующе смотрели в пространство. - Странное дело, ей-богу, все эти буквы - ни на один язык не похоже. - Может быть, японский? - предположил Беккер.
Это вам не Америка - никаких предупреждающих знаков, никаких поручней, никаких табличек с надписями, что страховые компании претензий не принимают. Это Испания. Если вы по глупости упадете, то это будет ваша личная глупость, кто бы ни придумал эти ступени.
Mierda! - вскипел Халохот. Беккеру удалось увернуться в последнее мгновение. Убийца шагнул к. Беккер поднялся над безжизненным телом девушки. Шаги приближались.
Но я скажу тебе, что собираюсь сделать… - Скажу тебе, что ты наглая лгунья, вот что я сделаю. - Пожалуй, я куплю тебе билет. Белокурая девушка смотрела на него недоверчиво. - Вы это сделаете? - выдавила она, и глаза ее засветились надеждой. - Вы купите мне билет домой.
Командный центр главного банка данных располагался на глубине шестидесяти с лишним метров от земной поверхности, что обеспечивало его неуязвимость даже в случае падения вакуумной или водородной бомбы. На высокой рабочей платформе-подиуме в центре комнаты возвышался Джабба, как король, отдающий распоряжения своим подданным. На экране за его спиной светилось сообщение, уже хорошо знакомое Сьюзан. Текст, набранный крупным шрифтом, точно на афише, зловеще взывал прямо над его головой: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ_____ Словно в кошмарном сне Сьюзан шла вслед за Фонтейном к подиуму.
Может, ему просто показалось. Какая разница, Стратмор никогда не решится выстрелить, пока он прикрыт Сьюзан. Но когда он начал подниматься на следующую ступеньку, не выпуская Сьюзан из рук, произошло нечто неожиданное.
Увидев кровь, Беккер понял, что ранен. Боли он не чувствовал и продолжал мчаться вперед по лабиринтам улочек Санта-Круса.