Chemistry Of Lipids Fats And Oils Soaps And Detergents Pdf

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Viva Voce. Soaps and detergents are essential to personal and public health. They safely remove germs, soils and other contaminants and help us to stay healthy and make our surroundings more pleasant.

Soap and detergent , substances that, when dissolved in water , possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin , textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex and consists of the following physical-chemical steps:. If detached oil droplets and dirt particles did not become suspended in the detergent solution in a stable and highly dispersed condition, they would be inclined to flocculate , or coalesce into aggregates large enough to be redeposited on the cleansed surface. In the washing of fabrics and similar materials, small oil droplets or fine, deflocculated dirt particles are more easily carried through interstices in the material than are relatively large ones. The action of the detergent in maintaining the dirt in a highly dispersed condition is therefore important in preventing retention of detached dirt by the fabric.

26.2: Saponification of Fats and Oils; Soaps and Detergents

Saponification value or saponification number SV or SN represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide KOH required to saponify one gram of fat under the conditions specified. The higher the saponification value, the lower the fatty acids average length, the lighter the mean molecular weight of triglycerides and vice-versa. Practically, fats or oils with high saponification value such as coconut and palm oil are more suitable for soap making.

To determine saponification value, the sample is hot-saponified with an excess of alkali usually potassium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol , in standard conditions, generally for half an hour under reflux.

Handmade soap makers who aim for bar soap use sodium hydroxide NaOH , commonly known as lye , rather than KOH caustic potash which produces soft paste, gel or liquid soaps.

For instance, triolein , a triglyceride occurring in many fats and oils, has three oleic acid residues esterified to a molecule of glycerol with a total MW of As it can be seen from the above formula 2 the SV of a given fat is inversely proportional to its molecular weight.

This means that coconut oil with an abundance of medium chain fatty acids mainly lauric contain more fatty acids per unit of weight than, for example, olive oil mainly oleic. Consequently, more ester saponifiable functions were present per g of coconut oil, which means more KOH is required to saponify the same amount of matter, and thus a higher SV.

Unsaponifiables are components of an fatty substance oil , fat , wax that fail to form soaps when treated with alkali and remain insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. For instance, typical soybean oil contain, by weight, 1. This fraction may also contain environmental contaminants and residues of plasticizers , pesticides , mineral oil hydrocarbons and aromatics. Unsaponifiable constituents are an important consideration when selecting oil mixtures for the manufacture of soaps.

Unsaponifiables can be beneficial to a soap formula because they may have properties such as moisturization , conditioning , antioxidant , texturing etc. For edible oils, the tolerated limit of unsaponifiable matter is 1. Determination of unsaponifiables involves a saponification step of the sample followed by extraction of the unsaponifiable using an organic solvent i.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, Retrieved July 8, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. New Delhi: Allied Publishers. How relevant is the iodine value? Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Retrieved Food Analysis. Food Chemistry.

Technical Handbook of Oils, Fats and Waxes. Cambridge University Press. Oils and Fats in the Food Industry. CRC Press. Retrieved September 14, Bibcode : Ana Categories : Analytical chemistry. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Fish oil [16]. Lanolin [17] [18]. Lard [19].

Whale oil [4].

Soap and detergent

Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules. However, at the surface, those molecules are surrounded by other water molecules only on the water side. A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces glass, fabric , which slows wetting of the surface and inhibits the cleaning process.

Soap is a salt of a fatty acid [1] used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products. In a domestic setting, soaps are surfactants usually used for washing , bathing , and other types of housekeeping. In industrial settings, soaps are used as thickeners , components of some lubricants , and precursors to catalysts. When used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can then be separated from the article being cleaned. In hand washing , as a surfactant, when lathered with a little water, soap kills microorganisms by disorganizing their membrane lipid bilayer and denaturing their proteins. It also emulsifies oils, enabling them to be carried away by running water. Soap is created by mixing fats and oils with a base , [3] as opposed to detergent which is created by combining chemical compounds in a mixer.

Saponification is the process in which triglycerides are combined with a strong base to form fatty acid metal salts during the soap-making process. The distribution of unsaturated and saturated fatty acid determines the hardness, aroma, cleansing, lather, and moisturizing abilities of soaps. Plant extracts, such as rosemary, vegetable, and essential oils are frequently added to soaps to enhance quality and sensory appeal. Three natural soaps were formulated using cold saponification to produce a base or control bar BB , hibiscus rosehip bar H , and a forest grove bar FG. Rosemary extract R or essential oil A blends were added as additives to each formulation prior to curing to evaluate the effects of natural plant additives on the lipid composition and sensory characteristics of these natural herbal soaps. Principal component analysis PCA analyses showed the unsaponifiable fatty acids were different in the hibiscus bar compared to the other bars.

Our Objective

Saponification value or saponification number SV or SN represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide KOH required to saponify one gram of fat under the conditions specified. The higher the saponification value, the lower the fatty acids average length, the lighter the mean molecular weight of triglycerides and vice-versa. Practically, fats or oils with high saponification value such as coconut and palm oil are more suitable for soap making.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. All types of soap are salts made from a chemical reaction between fat and an alkali substance. Many throughout history have used animal fat, also called tallow, to make soap.

Saponification value

1. Introduction

Женщина с кровотечением… плачущая молодая пара… молящаяся маленькая девочка. Наконец Беккер дошел до конца темного коридора и толкнул чуть приоткрытую дверь слева. Комната была пуста, если не считать старой изможденной женщины на койке, пытавшейся подсунуть под себя судно. Хорошенькое зрелище, - подумал Беккер.  - Где, черт возьми, регистратура. За едва заметным изгибом коридора Беккер услышал голоса.

 Я этого не переживу. В этот момент Сьюзан поймала себя на том, что готова взвалить на Хейла вину за все свои неприятности. За Цифровую крепость, волнения из-за Дэвида, зато, что не поехала в Смоуки-Маунтинс, - хотя он был ко всему этому не причастен. Единственная его вина заключалась в том, что она испытывала к нему неприязнь. Сьюзан важно было ощущать свое старшинство.

Я подумал о том, чтобы его ликвидировать, но со всей этой шумихой вокруг кода и его заявлений о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ мы тут же стали бы первыми подозреваемыми. И вот тогда меня осенило.  - Он повернулся к Сьюзан.  - Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать. Сьюзан смотрела на него в растерянности. Стратмор продолжал: - Внезапно я увидел в Цифровой крепости шанс, который выпадает раз в жизни. Ведь если внести в код ряд изменений, Цифровая крепость будет работать на нас, а не против .

Our Objective

Он знал, что где-то за этой витиеватой резной дверью находится кольцо.

 Вы хотите отправить его домой. - Нет. Пусть остается.  - Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности.  - Чатрукьян уже, надеюсь, ушел.

Беккер задумался. Что это за имя такое - Капля Росы. Он в последний раз взглянул на Клушара. - Капля Росы. Вы уверены.

How Animal Fat Is Used in Soap and Skin Cleansers

 Сьюзан - вздохнул он - Я не могу сейчас об этом говорить, внизу ждет машина. Я позвоню и все объясню. - Из самолета? - повторила .