Biomaterials And Tissue Engineering In Urology Pdf

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In recent pre-clinical studies, biomaterials and bladder tissue engineering have shown promising outcomes when addressing the need for bladder tissue replacement.

Tissue Engineering of Urinary Bladder and Urethra: Advances from Bench to Patients

Tissue engineering is defined as the combination of biomaterials and bioengineering principles together with cell transplantation or directed growth of host cells to develop a biological replacement tissue or organ that can be a substitute for normal tissue both in structure and function. Despite early promising preclinical studies, clinical translation of tissue engineering in pediatric urology into humans has been unsuccessful both for cell-seeded and acellular scaffolds. This can be ascribed to various factors, including the use of only non-diseased models that inaccurately describe the structural and functional modifications of diseased tissue. The paper addresses potential future strategies to overcome the limitations experienced in clinical applications so far. The development of smart scaffolds that release trophic factors in a set and timely manner will probably improve regeneration. Modulation of innate immune response as a major contributor to tissue regeneration outcome is also addressed. It is unlikely that only one of these strategies alone will lead to clinically applicable tissue engineering strategies in pediatric urology.

Electrospinning: Application and Prospects for Urologic Tissue Engineering

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The most common congenital abnormalities involve the genitourinary system.

Functional disorders and injuries of urinary bladder, urethra, and ureter may necessitate the application of urologic reconstructive surgeries to recover normal urine passage, prevent progressive damages of these organs and upstream structures, and improve the quality of life of patients. Reconstructive surgeries are generally very invasive procedures that utilize autologous tissues. In addition to imperfect functional outcomes, these procedures are associated with significant complications owing to long-term contact of urine with unspecific tissues, donor site morbidity, and lack of sufficient tissue for vast reconstructions. Thanks to the extensive advancements in tissue engineering strategies, reconstruction of the diseased urologic organs through tissue engineering have provided promising vistas during the last two decades. Several biomaterials and fabrication methods have been utilized for reconstruction of the urinary tract in animal models and human subjects; however, limited success has been reported, which inspires the application of new methods and biomaterials.

Tissue engineering in urology

Urinary tract is subjected to many varieties of pathologies since birth including congenital anomalies, trauma, inflammatory lesions, and malignancy. These diseases necessitate the replacement of involved organs and tissues. Shortage of organ donation, problems of immunosuppression, and complications associated with the use of nonnative tissues have urged clinicians and scientists to investigate new therapies, namely, tissue engineering.

Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. Received 10 November Published 10 May Volume Pages 79— Review by Single anonymous peer review.

Part 1 Fundamentals: Introduction to biofilms in urology: In vivo models for ureteral stents; Models for the assessment of biofilm and encrustation formation on urological materials. Part 2 Materials and design of urological devices: Ureteral stents: Design and materials; Metal stents in the upper urinary tract; Coated ureteral stents; Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation and catheter design; Self-lubricating catheter materials; Temporary urethral stents; Penile implants. Part 3 Urological tissue engineering: Artificial biomaterials for urological tissue engineering; Natural biomaterials for urological tissue engineering; Nanotechnology and urological tissue engineering; Assessing the performance of tissue-engineered urological implants; Regenerative pharmacology and bladder regeneration; Autologous cell sources for urological applications; Embryonic stem cells, nuclear transfer, and parthenogenesis-derived stem cells for urological reconstruction; Amniotic fluid and placental stem cells as a source for urological regenerative medicine; The use of adipose progenitor cells in urology; Regenerative medicine of the urinary sphincter via an endoscopic approach; Regenerative medicine of the urinary sphincter via direct injection; Regenerative medicine for the urethra; Penile reconstruction; Tissue engineering in reproductive medicine; Regenerative medicine of the kidney; Stem cells and kidney regeneration; Techniques for engineering bladder tissue.

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