File Name: infants and toddlers curriculum and teaching .zip
Each module describes strategies that early childhood educators can use to modify their learning environment and interactions to meet the varying needs of children in their classroom. While all early learning professionals can benefit from this series, the modules are best suited for center-based teachers and teacher assistants.
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- Early childhood educator’ perspectives on how infants and toddlers learn: Australia and China
- Learning Standards for Early Childhood
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Individuals caring for infants and toddlers have an awesome responsibility. We know from research that the first three years of life form the basis for later growth and development. The components of a quality infant and toddler program are many. This article will attempt to identify the major components, explain infant and toddler milestones, and provide suggestions for implementing developmentally appropriate practice. Principles of Child Development Development is a complex and emergent process of ever-increasing skills and abilities where each period of growth is preceded by a brief, sometimes turbulent regression Brazelton, Four general principles of development help chart the amazing developmental changes that take place during the first three years of life.
The first principle is that growth follows a universal and predictable sequence. Further, the predictability of development can be seen in each area of development—physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and language. For example, in the physical domain, development proceeds from sitting, to crawling to pulling, to a stand to walking Berk, The second principle of development is that each child has an individual pattern and timing of growth. For example, one child may pull to a standing position and walk at eight months while another may do so at 13 months.
The third principle is that development proceeds from the simple to the complex or from the general to the specific. Simple skills must be acquired before more complex ones can be attempted. Children eat with their fingers before attempting to use a spoon or fork. Controlling fingers is a simpler task than controlling an extension of the fingers, the fork Kail, The sequence of development makes up the fourth principle.
During the first few years, children develop their bodies from the top down and from the center out—cephalocaudal-proximodistal trend.
Most children, for example, can swipe at objects by the age of five or six months, pick up objects between the thumb and forefinger by 11 or 12 months, hold aspoon by 22 months, and begin scribbling with a crayon by 30 months, illustrating the proximodistal trend. Similarly, children roll over by five or six months, sit without support by seven or eight months, pull to a stand by 10 to 12 months, and walk by 12 to 16 months, illustrating the cephalocaudal trend.
As teachers, we should incorporate frequent communications with parents. A good start is a written system to support clear communication, particularly if parents and teachers do not see each other at the beginning or end of each day. Teachers have numerous other ways to connect with parents as well. Parents can be invited into the classroom through pictures, audio tapes, and parent participation activities Gestwicki, Teachers can share the day with parents through photographs of children taken during the day and by frequent and regular parent conferences.
Telephones and e-mail have simplified communication because teachers and parents can use these technologies to increase communication when they have time during the day. Observation and Assessment of Children Observation and assessment serve three goals in curriculum development.
Creating an Appropriate Environment As stated previously, the components of an infant and toddler program are many, but what should your infant and toddler environment look like? What elements contribute to a developmentally appropriate classroom? The description of important infant and toddler components follow.
Consistency and Flexibility. As contradictory as it sounds, a balance between consistency and flexibility results in environments that are neither boring nor over-stimulating. Infants and toddlers benefit from environmental consistency in the location of their rooms, where they sleep, and the location of certain components of the environment like where their blankets and security items are kept and where they are diapered or fed.
Environments for infants and toddlers need to provide multiple sources of stimulation, which encourage development of a wide variety of skills. Stimulation should be available from toys, materials, equipment, furniture, and, of course, people and other children.
But stimulation should also be controllable. There should be ways to turn up the stimulation in a room, as well as ways to turn it down. Private Places. Environments for infants and toddlers should provide access to private spaces where children can be all alone, even when the room is full of children. These spaces make the child care day manageable for very young children who have limited skill filtering out stimulation.
Intimate and Undisturbed Space. Space should allow for time with caregivers that is intimate and undisturbed Greenman, ; places where adults can be with children. The aesthetics of the environment are also important to consider.
Color affects moods, nerves, and emotions of both adults and children. Color research with young children has shown that red and orange increase initial activity but result in rapid fatigue.
Yellow slows down motor movement and encourages boredom. Blue and green create, in children, outward signs of well-being and relaxed movement Cherry, Additionally, where color is used is important.
Walls, furniture, and fixtures need to be soft, soothing colors like off-white or beige and pastels while toys and materials can be bright and stimulating. Activity Areas. The physical environment of the classroom is a very important component of infant and toddler curriculum.
The activity center approach, which is widely used in preschool programs, is appropriate for infant and toddler classrooms as long as adjustments are made to adapt centers to the behaviors and skills of infants and toddlers Cataldo, In general, preschoolers choose and go to stationary activity centers, whereas infant and toddler activity areas are taken to the child by the teacher.
Personalizing the Environment. Environments for very young children should be personalized to reflect the children who are living in them. Use photographs of children, their parents, pets, avorite relatives, and their homes. Mounted on the walls, attached safely to bulletin boards with clear contact paper, and mounted in cribs, photographs or even pictures from magazines can be a very connecting experience for children.
In addition, photographs of children at rest, work, and play should be regularly available for children to see. To facilitate the use of photographs, plan to keep either an instant camera or an automatic camera loaded with print film available.
Individual Scheduling Feeding and diapering are two of the most time consuming routines. Very young infants may eat six or eight times a day and need as many diaper changes.
Toddlers eat less often and require less frequent diaper changes, but the number of children in a group usually increases. So toddler teachers have a fewer number of feedings and changings, but more children who must be fed and changed. Add to this, the need to allow infants and toddlers to establish very individual schedules and should be tailored.
This means that one or two children might eat every four hours while another eats every three hours. The same is true for sleeping and elimination. Individual scheduling means letting the child's natural biological rhythms and temperament determine his or her schedule rather than super-imposing a common schedule on all children. The result is less stress for children waiting to have their needs met and less pressure on teachers to meet multiple needs at once.
It serves as a reminder of what might come next and can be particularly helpful to substitute teachers. For children under eight or nine months, routines of diapering, feeding, and napping will form much of the daily schedule.
But even these routine activities provide excellent opportunities for learning and stimulation. Teachers who use routines to insure a healthy dose of reciprocal exchanges—the give and take of interactions—are not spending too much time on routine care. Tickling toes, playing peek-a-boo, talking to children during diapering, getting the child to hold a cup after eating, etc.
In addition, infant environments should include a variety of stimulating things to manipulate, touch, watch, follow, taste, and so forth. Another important consideration for infant and toddler programming includes providing enough materials for every interested child to participate. Duplicates of materials or similar materials must be available so that each child has his or her own play thing.
Because children at this age tend to go where the action is, they will always be drawn to the adults and other children in the room, even though they lack the social skills to participate successfully in groups. Activities and materials must either accommodate all interested children or be visually separated from other children. Cataldo directed teachers to also consider balancing planned activities with spontaneous activities that occur in the natural course of events. Too little opportunity for learning by living results in limited self-motivation, limited exploration, fewer opportunities for successful peer interaction, and less chance of independent discovery learning.
Planning activities and experiences for infants and toddlers is not difficult—anything and everything interests them. The hard part is matching children's schedules and interests with activities.
Popular activities can be repeated more than once a day or daily for several days. This ensures that children who want to participate have the time to do so. Sometimes you will need to throw out planned activities because something more interesting arises that deserves attention.
Time Alone Another important component of curriculum is time alone to explore, experience, watch, and investigate Gerber, When the environment is well-planned and full of toys to manipulate, materials to touch, and pictures or photos to look at, infants and toddlers will be engaged and interested. Children who are left alone, however, still need alert, attentive caregivers.
Smiling, nodding, clapping for accomplishments, and giving warm facial expressions all convey to the child that the teacher is near, engaged, and available. Verbal Interactions During the first three years of life, children go from non-verbal to speaking in complete sentences. This critical period is like a window, opening for stimulation and development, then closing Shore, Responses from teachers to all early attempts at communication motivates babies to continue the dialogue and expand their vocal abilities.
The field of speech and language development offers several indirect language stimulation techniques that infant and toddler teachers have found extremely useful.
These techniques—description, parallel talk, self-talk, expansion and expansion plus—serve to direct the teacher's language behaviors to encourage the emergence of language.
She must be here to pick up Jenny. Mutual respect involves telling children what will happen to them before it happens and waiting for the child to indicate that he or she is ready. A respectful teacher waits for the child to pause in her activity and indicate readiness before continuing.
All done! S elf-talk, on the other hand, focuses on adult behavior. Expansion and expansion plus are extremely useful techniques to use with toddlers when their vocabularies begin to grow.
Early childhood educator’ perspectives on how infants and toddlers learn: Australia and China
See our Coronavirus resources for early childhood professionals. Do you know a family who wants to turn their Members of Congress into champions for babies? Professional Resource. Download Files Feb 8, These modules were designed to compliment training offered to early childhood consultants through the National Training Institute at the Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Click here to learn more. This brief provides practical partnership and collaboration strategies for early care and education and child welfare systems to meet the needs of and best serve families with infants and toddlers wh….
Learning Standards for Early Childhood
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In an important sense, pedagogy is the overarching concept; it refers broadly to the deliberate process of cultivating development within a given culture and society. From this point of view, pedagogy has three basic components: 1 curriculum, or the content of what is being taught; 2 methodology, or the way in which teaching is done; and 3 techniques for socializing children in the repertoire of cognitive and affective skills required for successful functioning in society that education is designed to promote. Curriculum, or the content of teaching, may be designed to encourage learning processes memory, attention, observation and cognitive skills reasoning, comparing and contrasting, classification , as well as the acquisition of specific information, such as the names of the letters of the alphabet Wiggins and McTighe,
Infant/Toddler; Pre-Kindergarten; Kindergarten; Grade 1 and Grade 2
Pennsylvania's Learning Standards for Early Childhood are research-based according to age and development, and form the foundation for curriculum, assessment, instruction and intervention within early care and education programs. The Infant, Toddler and Pre-Kindergarten and the Kindergarten, Grades 1 and 2 Standards were revised to reflect current research-based content and integration, and to align with the Pennsylvania Core Standards. For more information, please contact Maryanne Olley at molley pa. Provide universal access to high-quality early childhood education. Improve access, affordability, and completion in postsecondary education and training. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page.
See our Coronavirus resources for early childhood professionals. Do you know a family who wants to turn their Members of Congress into champions for babies? Professional Resource. Download Files Feb 8, These modules were designed to compliment training offered to early childhood consultants through the National Training Institute at the Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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