Nature And Scope Of Political Sociology Pdf

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A suitable place to begin exploring grand theory in the social sciences is the paradigm that has been provided by the sociologists. Sociological explanations posit that underlying social structures and patterns of social change have directed the course of human history.

Introduction to Political Sociology: Overview

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Amrit Barla. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Unit 1 introduction Origin and growth of political sociology, definition, nature and scope, founding fathers - Karl Marx and Max Weber their contribution Origin and growth of political sociology Political sociology, although a new emergence in its modern form, has a long history and there are substantial contributions made by the scholars of nineteenth century.

Political sociology, as an independent discipline emerged in the middle of 19th century. It was not born by accident.

Politician, political scientists and sociologists have played a major role in the evolution of this subject. There were a few important factors that contributed to the growth of political sociology.

There were many factors that were responsible for the emergence of political sociology. The growing dissatisfaction with the traditional nature of political science. Political science was interested in normative prescriptions and political science had always viewed the state as its star attention. The growth of political sociology was made possible by political scientists who quietly accepted the invasion of sociology into the sphere of politics without any protest.

Political scientists began to look at political realities from a scientific perspective or in an empirical manner.

Extension of area of politics 4. Distinction between state and society. Definition Political sociology is the product of cross fertilization between sociology and political science.

It studies the impact of society and politics on each other. Political sociology studies the interrelations between state and other social structures.

And Smelser N. J tells political sociology can be defined as the study of the interrelationship between society and polity between social structures and political institution.

Nature and Scope Political sociology is a science like any other science. It employs systematic methods of investigation, theoretical thinking and logical assessment of arguments. Political sociology collects evidence about the selected subject matter using planned and organized methods. Explanations and conclusions are drawn on the basis of carefully collected evidences. Findings and conclusions are open to inspections, criticism and testing by other researchers. Political sociology involves systematic methods of investigation, analysis of data and the assessment of theories in the light of evidences and logical argument.

The scope of political sociology is very vast Political sociology is concerned with the way in which political arrangements depend on social organizations and cultural values.

It studies the relationship between the state and society, party system and its relations to society. Politics pervades the entire society.

The scope includes the effect of social attitudes on political participations, social classes and their political attitudes, social implication of voting pattern. Political sociology studies the nature of modern democracy and their forum in different socio- political contexts. It studies the impact of social groupings upon political activity, the nature of welfare state, the effectiveness of propaganda and public opinion as means of informal political education.

In short political sociology includes all political and social aspects which arise time and again in contemporary societies.

Political sociology studies modern institution like bureaucracy, political parties, voting propaganda etc, which are day to day issues in the life of modern masses.

Founding fathers: Karl Marx and Max Weber Although many have contributed to the growth and development of political sociology, karl marx and max weber are said to be the founding fathers of political sociology.

Karl Marx: he was one of the most influential thinkers in the 19 th century. He was born in Germany in and his parents were Jewish, the descendent of many generation of rabbis. From the process of production 3. From himself 4. He was a man of enormous and obvious brilliance.

One contemporary described him in his mid-twenties, Imagine Rousseau vottaire, Holbach, Lessing, Heine and Hegel fused into one person and you have Marx. Marx devoted his life to the cause of socialist revolution.

He and his family were, as a result, hounded and spied on by the police forces of half of Europe. They lived in miserable poverty. He was trained lawyer, a historian, an economist, a political thinker, a journalist, a great humanist and a philosopher.

He committed himself to the cause of the exploited working class. In his early life he was concerned more about philosophy and was deeply influenced by George W. F Hegel. Historical materialism Hegel had tremendous influence on Marx and borrowed the Hegelian notion of thesis, antithesis and synthesis. Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society economics and history.

Marx himself never used the term but referred to his approach as the materialist conception of history. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. The non-economic features of a society e. Political structures, ideologies are seen as being an outgrowth of its economic activity.

Hegel had tremendous influence on Marx and borrowed the Hegelian notion of thesis, antithesis and synthesis. Historical materialism is a methods logical approach to the study of society economics and history.

The non- economic features of a society are seen as being an outgrowth of its economic activity. According to him, for human being to survive and continue existence from generation to generation, it is necessary for them to produce and reproduce the material requirements of life like food, shelter etc.

How this is accomplished depends on the type of society. Production is carried out through very definite relations between people.

And in turn, these production relations are determined by the level and character of the productive forces that are present at any given time in history for Marx, production such as the fools, instruments, technology, land, raw material and human knowledge and abilities in terms of using these means of production.

Marx identifies the production relations of society arising on the basis of given production forces as the economic base of society. On the other hand relations that control and organize production. He also explained that on the foundation of the economic base there arise certain political institution, laws, customs, culture etc. This superstructure not only has its origin in the economic base, but its features also ultimately correspond to the character and development of that economic base that is the way people organize society is determined by the economic base and the relations that arise from its mode of production.

According to him different classes are antagonistic to each other. Class is a social group where members share the same relationships to the forces of production. Thus during the feudal stage there are two main classes distinguished by their relationship to land, the major forces of production.

They are the feudal nobility who own the land and the landless serf who works the land, similarly in the capitalist society there these bourgeoisies or capitalists who own the forces of production and the proletariats or working class who own only their labour.

Classes are interest of the capitalist class is to pay workers as little as possible, to exploit them in order to make more profit whereas the interest of the working class is to raise wages, and eventually to abolish capitalism entirely. Alienation Alienation refers to the sense of powerlessness, isolation and meaninglessness experienced by human beings when they are confronted with social institutions or condition that they cannot control and consider oppressive.

For Marx the social arrangements in capitalist society alienated the worker. They failed to provide him with the opportunities for a meaningful and creative existence. The worker is alienated because he neither receives satisfaction from his work nor receives the full product of his labour.

Workers thus cease to be autonomous beings in any significant sense under pre- capitalist conditions a black smith eg or a shoemaker would own his own shop. Set his own hours, determine his own working conditions, shape his own product and have some say in how his product is bartered or sold.

His relationships with the people with whom he worked and dealt had a more or less personal character. Under the conditions of modern factory production, by contrast the average worker is not much more than a replaceable cog in a gigantic and impersonal production apparatus. He was criticized for regarding the sociological factors as dependent variables rather than independent variables and subordinating them to economic interpretation of history.

He also failed to anticipate the adaptive capacity of capitalism. However his general theories of economic determinism and dialectic materialism and his specific theories of class struggle class consciousness and alienation have stimulated a great amount work.

Marx tried to give his theories a firm ground on the basis of evidence which he sought to examine in a systematic and rigorous manner. Max weber Max weber was a great German sociologist who has left a deep imprint in political sociology. He was one of the founders of modern sociology and began his interest in social sciences when he was He was a man interested in the practical affaires of government and politics. He was born in a comparatively rich protestant family and his father was quite active in politics.

Religion and Economy Weber wrote extensively on the subject of religion. His essay on protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism is his major contribution to sociology. He observed a close connection between religion ideas and economic forces, such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit.

Weber first observes a correlation between being protestant and being involved in business, and declares his intent to explore religion as a potential cause of the modern economic conditions. Weber found that, according to protestant religious, individuals were religiously compelled to follow a secular vocation with as much enthusiasm as possible.

A person living according to this worldview was more likely to accumulate money. Further, the new religious, such as Calvinism and Protestantism forbade wastefully using hard earned money and labeled the purchase of luxuries as a sin.

Sociological Approaches: Old and New in Political Sociology

Comparative politics is the study and appraisal of domestic politics across countries. Comparative politics has a long and very eminent history dating back just before the origin of systematic political studies in ancient Greece and Rome. Even ancient people, compared their situations with those of other people's with whom they came in contact. The Bible is possibly one of the first written statements of comparative politics. The ancient Greeks performed the earliest systematic comparisons of a more modern and secular. Comparative politics is key area in political science, pigeonholed by an empirical approach based on the comparative method.

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nature of political sociology could be a factor of immense preciousne for political scientists and sociologists to take up the challenge and d cover the trends and.


Sociology: Definition, Development and its Scope

Read this article to learn about definitions, development and scope of Sociology! The term Sociology was coined by Auguste Comte, a French philosopher, in Sociology is the youngest of all the Social Sciences. The most distinctive feature of human life is its social character.

Sociology- Meaning, Scope and nature, Importance of its study. Relation with other Social Sciences. Sociology is a discipline in social sciences concerned with the human society and human social activities.

Sociology is the study of human behavior. Sociology refers to social behavior , society , patterns of social relationships, social interaction , and culture that surrounds everyday life. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare , others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter can range from micro -level analyses of society i. Traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification , social class , social mobility , religion , secularization , law , sexuality , gender , and deviance.

Political sociology

The concept of political sociology is the extended form of sociology which studies exclusively the relationship between the ruler or the state and the citizens and also the relationship among the citizens in a state. However, it is not limited to this study only. Its extended study includes the relationship between various states and conflicts between them. In the history of man, politics is considered to be of utmost importance and its course during the time shapes the mankind of the future. This reflection of political authority is crucial for social life and human existence.

Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State and civil society to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power. The lineage of this discipline is typically traced from such thinkers as Montesquieu, Smith and Ferguson through the founding fathers of sociology — Karl Marx , Emile Durkheim and Max Weber — to such contemporary theorists as Anthony Giddens , Jurgen Habermas and Michael Mann. In other words, political sociology was traditionally concerned with how social trends, dynamics, and structures of domination affect formal political processes, as well as exploring how various social forces work together to change political policies. Elite or managerial theory is sometimes called a state-centered approach.

INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY
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