PARAGRAPHKellogg Company early in It made available for the first time an adequately organized, comprehensive analytical method for evaluating the stresses, reactions, and deflections in an irregular piping system in space, unlimited as to the character, location, or number of concentrated loadings or restraints. It was the culmination of an intensive, widespread effort to meet the recognized need for refined analysis capable of general application to the increasing number of critical piping services required by technological progress, and to the increasingly severe problems which they posed. The timely availability of this reliable and versatile approach, now widely known as the Kellogg General Analytical Method, made it possible to provide satisfactory design for the avalanche of critical and pioneering piping requirements associated with World War II plant design, and proved to be a major step in accelerating acquaintance with accurate thermal expansion analysis and appreciation of its potentialities for more extensive application. Since the war, technological progress and the trend to larger scale, more complex units has continued unabated, while the attendant increased pressures, temperatures, and structural complexities have resulted in larger pipe sizes, heavier wall thicknesses, and a marked increase in alloy construction. Concurrently, the wartime-fostered universal acceptance of adequate piping flexibility analysis for critical service has paved the way for more searching examination of the over-all economics of erected piping by relating potential fabrication, materials, and operating savings to increased engineering costs.